Trans4mind Home Page
~ A Journey of Self-Discovery ~

Explore Article Library

Organic Chemistry 101

By John Mclain

Organic chemistry is a branch and specific discipline of chemistry. Organic chemistry deals specifically with the properties, structure, and composition of organic compounds. Organic compounds, by definition, are compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms. It is generally agreed that the science of organic chemistry began in 1828. It is then that Friedrich Woehler accidentally evaporated an aqueous solution and came up with the organic compound called urea.

Although carbon is not the most common element in the world, it is one of the most versatile. Organic compounds are composed of carbon and hydrogen molecules, but may also contain other elements. Some of the most common elements found in organic compounds include oxygen, halogens, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur or phosphorus.

Most organic compounds are covalently bonded, which allows them to form long, complex carbon chains and rings. Carbon atoms are very stable, and are able to form stable covalent bonds with one another (known as catenation). Unlike non-organic materials, organic compounds will usually melt or decompose if exposed to temperatures below 300 degrees Celsius. Another characteristic of organic compounds is that they tend to be more soluble in organic solvents. Solubility, however, always depends on the overall structure of the compound and the functional groups present. A functional group refers to the parts of a molecule that make up its specific chemical nature.

Perhaps the most important and most studied types of organic compounds are those that contain nitrogen. These compounds usually contain parts of the amino group. When the amino group combines with the carboxyl group, amino acids are born. Amino acids are regarded as the building blocks of proteins.

Scientists and researchers use several types of methods in order to determine the molecular structure of an organic compound. Here are the most common methods currently in use:

Crystallography: Crystallography is the science of determining the arrangements of atoms in solids. By studying the diffraction patterns given off by a sample, scientists are able to determine its structure. This is the most precise method for studying compounds. However, most crystals are not large enough to produce a clear picture of some compounds.

Mass Spectrometry: This method involves examining the molecular weight and fragmentation pattern of a compound to determine its chemical structure.

Elemental Analysis: Elemental analysis involves analyzing the sample of the compound to determine its elemental and isotopic composition. In studying organic compounds mostly destructive methods, such as flame atomic absorption or graphite furnace atomic absorption, are used to determine the elemental composition of a molecule.

Infrared Spectroscopy: Spectroscopy is used to determine the presence or absence of functional groups to learn the chemical nature of a molecule.

UV/VIS Spectroscopy: Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry to determine the nature of a compound. Spectrophotometry uses a spectrophotometer to measure how much light is absorbed by the sample.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): NMR spectroscopy is one of the most common methods to obtain the physical, chemical, structural and electronic nature of a molecule. NMR works by studying the magnetism of a nucleus by placing it in alignment with a magnetic field, and then using an electromagnetic field to disrupt this alignment.

About The Author
John Mclain is an expert author at, a site all about chemistry. Visit to learn about chemistry and find the right equipment.


Careers & Employment
Grief & Loss
Kids & Teens
Public Speaking
Self Help
Self Improvement & Motivation
Sexual Relations
Stress Management
Travel and Leisure

From our extensive site, you'll find good info on many topics using this search:

Want to renew your life?

Our online, interactive video workshops present the most effective methods of holistic personal development...
Start off with a Free Life Assessment and a Free Consultation...

Have a question about Trans4mind Training?

Frequently Asked Questions
What Are Our Fees?
Email Peter Shepherd

Support your personal development with these popular and effective hypnosis downloads...

  • Public Speaking Fear ~ Banish speaking anxiety and nerves with hypnosis.
  • Motivate Yourself to Exercise ~ Build a powerful exercise habit that you can't break.
  • Get Rid of Fear & Anxiety ~ Stop worry and apprehension wrecking your life.
  • Self Esteem ~ Break the negative trance of low self esteem and give yourself a chance in life.
  • Create Your Own Reality ~ Use the power of your unconscious mind to transform your life.
  • Deeper Self Respect ~ Use hypnosis to connect with your true inner worth.
  • Detach From Fear ~ Tune out nervousness and anxiety with hypnosis.
  • Improving Concentration and Focus ~ Learn how to discipline, direct and command your mind to improve your performance.
  • Exercise Motivation ~ Give you powerful keys to getting back on track with your exercise - and staying there.
  • Overcoming Shyness ~ Provides an invisible security blanket allowing you to develop social ease and overcome shyness.
  • Quick Confidence Booster ~ An audio hypnosis session that's specifically designed to get you (quickly!) back on track.
  • Stop Negative Thoughts ~ Learn powerful hypnotic techniques to stop negative thoughts before they start.
  • Overcoming Procrastination ~ Let hypnosis help you get on with what you need to do, when you need to do it. Let nothing hold you back.
  • Think Thin ~ Use hypnosis to re-train your brain and lose weight naturally... that's how to get and stay slim.
  • Fall Asleep Fast ~ Relearn how to fall asleep fast and enjoy a good night's sleep.
  • The Next Level ~ Designed to radically boost your performance in any field. It's based on a technique used by top athletes and other successful people to help them make a big stride forward.
This is our selection of favorites, but there's a session for every need! Choose from over 800 Hypnosis Downloads...
Search now on an issue that interests or concerns you...

Welcome to the New Wave in Meditation Technology

Click here to learn more about the iAwake Profound Meditation Program
The iAwake Profound Meditation Program
is a way of enhancing your meditation practice, making meditation not only easier and more enjoyable, but also more efficient and effective.
Profound Meditation provides the smoothest, deepest, richest, most profound meditation experience available anywhere...
Here is a link to a free 20-minute track from iAwake Technologies - a sample of the type of tools that will deepen your meditation immediately and help you quickly become a successful meditator. It's the opening track of iAwake's flagship product, the Profound Meditation Program, called the iAwake Experience...
Learn More and Download the iAwake Experience
We think you'll find this technology a tremendous aid on your transformative journey of becoming your best and most creative self - and you can get started today!
And here's a fantastic resource for self-education...

The World of Inspiration eLibrary

World of Inspiration
A treasure trove of personal development wisdom

Step inside. Just like a real library, there are thousands of quality eBooks presented on three "floors" and in different "rooms." To purchase your $15 Lifetime Membership to the World of Inspiration eLibrary, click the following button:

Payment is made through our secure transaction agent, PayPal.
The transaction is in the language and currency of your choice.
"I want to just say 'WOW!' This collection is probably the best money I ever spent! I've already received many times over in personal enrichment after just 9 days. I've had a past metaphysical background, but even newcomers to this material will really benefit. Thanks again." ~ J.S. (Pennsylvania, USA)
"The collection is everything which you promised. And more! A superb contribution to the good of the world. Many thanks indeed." ~ R.P. (Georgia, USA)
"Just a short note of thanks for the library. I've only had membership for several days now but I already feel this is perhaps the most interesting compilation I have yet seen. Worth far more than the price of admission. The browser linked structure works well and makes it easy to manage such a large storehouse of information. It is rarely that I find something I like as much as this or that I feel strongly enough to write a note like this." ~ P.W. (Minnesota, USA)
Copyright © 1997-2016 Trans4mind Ltd