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Dual & Second Citizenship:
What Is the Difference Between These Concepts

Although people often confuse the two, dual citizenship and second citizenship are different things and are based on entirely different principles. They have distinctive features, advantages, and disadvantages for dual nationals — people with multiple citizenship. In this article, Global Citi-Zen experts will tell you the difference between dual and second citizenship. Keep reading and find out how and where you can get a second passport. 

Dual & Second Citizenship

Second Citizenship vs. Dual Citizenship

The major difference between a bipatride and a person with dual citizenship is the presence of contracts between the two states and the status of the bipatride inside that state. A country is not bound to treat a person as a dual national or recognize that person's rights and duties concerning another country just because that person possesses dual citizenship or two passports.

This doesn't sound very clear. So you can always contact specialists who will help you figure it out. Such professionals can be found here — However, in this article, you will find general information that will also help you clarify the situation.

Dual citizenship 

It means a person possesses passports from two different nations and their rights and responsibilities in both are officially recognized by both governments. This type of citizenship is based on bilateral agreements between states. People with dual citizenship may select whatever country's military they want to serve in. Their children receive two passports by birth.

To obtain dual citizenship, certain conditions are required:

  • the parents of the child have citizenhip of different states;

  • the state border of the state has changed;

  • the child was adopted by a foreigner;

  • a person acquired citizenship by naturalization or repatriation.

Advantages and disadvantages of dual citizenship

Though a person with dual citizenship has all the privileges of a citizen of both countries, such benefits are only applicable inside the nation where they now reside.

The most common pros and cons of being a bipatride include the following:

  1. Freedom to travel between nations without obtaining a visa;

  2. commercial opportunities in both nations;

  3. The ability to access the diplomatic services of both nations while based in a third country;

  4. Legal commitments to both countries persist and are caused by the nation in which one resides.

Second citizenship 

In this case, an individual is carrying several passports from various nations. Dual nationals have neither the rights nor the duties of citizens of their home nations. A citizen is solely subject to the state in which they reside.

Public authorities may not know about a person's second citizenship unless the law requires notification of its presence. You can obtain a second passport in many ways, such as through investment programs, naturalization, or marriage. 

Advantages and disadvantages of second citizenship

Having second citizenship has several benefits. To begin, it enables unprecedented movement. Professionals in the field of migration recommend thinking about a few different paths to a second citizenship. Most people, however, use second citizenship through investment programs. 

The primary reasons why cosmopolitans often get dual citizenship are: 

  1. Travel freely around the world;

  2. Have a job overseas;

  3. Have a "plan B" in case of facing instability in the country of residence;

  4. Provide children with a high-quality education and the opportunity to get a job in another country;

  5. Enjoy social guarantees in both countries;

  6. Open accounts and business abroad;

  7. Optimize taxes.

The most significant disadvantage of a second citizenship is that each country recognizes a bipatride only as its citizen. So, in some cases, a person with second citizenship will have to join the army in both countries.

Which Сountries Do Recognize Second Citizenship? 

Multi-citizenship is legal in several nations. The list of countries where you may buy a passport by investing in them is extensive, as outlined by migration professionals. Some of them are listed below:

Australia Grenada Antigua & Barbuda UK Barbados Portugal Dominica
USA Saint Kitts & Nevis Canada Argentina Turkey Dominican Republic Hong Kong
Saint Lucia Maldives France Mexico Costa Rica Italy Vanuatu

Of course, this is a partial list of countries that allow second citizenship. You can check out the complete list and additional info here.

Each country has a particular citizenship-by-investment program that differs in cost and conditions. Global Citi-Zen experts note that Portugal and the Caribbean provide the most popular programs. However, before choosing, experts advise reviewing all possible options and choosing the most profitable one. 

How to Get a Second Citizenship

Legal residency in the country for many years, marriage to a citizen, and a desire to return to one's native homeland are all necessary conditions for applying for second citizenship. Each state has its own procedures and criteria when applying for legal residence.

Investing in the country's infrastructure may earn your citizenship in several ways:

  • A non-refundable payment to the state's general budget;

  • The purchase of real estate or bonds;

  • The establishment of a company.

Investors may skip the language and social studies test other candidates must take to become citizens. Additionally, investors' immediate family members are eligible to participate in the programs and apply for a second passport.

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