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By Sophie Brown

Want to gain more insight on the Driscoll Model of Reflection and its framework?

If yes, then the readers have arrived on the right page. Study all about the basics of "what, so what, now what kind of reflection Driscoll. Reflective models present a structure for learners or practitioners to evaluate their performance to pursue personal views and attainment levels and improve. Particular criteria may be employed to guide the method, which requires the readiness to be self-critical. The Driscoll Model is an example of these frameworks.

Let us have a peek at Driscoll's model of reflection without losing time.

What Is Driscoll's Model Of Reflection?

Driscoll's model of reflection is quite the most manageable type the experts will ever come over. Driscoll formed it in 1994, 2004, and 2007. Driscoll considered the three key issues that were initially proposed by Terry Boston in the early 70s; they were:

  • What?' then;
  • 'So What?' and the last one was;
  • 'Now, What?'

It met with the steps of an experiential knowledge cycle. Additionally, there are questions covered that are commonly applied to create the process. Before proceeding to a complete description of the model, readers should learn thoroughly about the Driscoll cycle.

Understanding the Driscoll Model of Reflection Cycle

The Driscoll Cycle is used to go through people's whole idea of what is happening and achieve by studying the 'what' question. It prompts the experts to consider the action needed as a consequence of the reflection.


This section includes a description of the significant event. It would display purposefully on a critical perspective of that knowledge by questions such as:

Key questions:

  • What is the goal of responding to the situation?
  • What followed?
  • What did different people create who were concerned about this?
  • What was the person's role?
  • What was the reaction to the problem?
  • What were the primary expectations?
  • What did the user acquire from the occurrence?
  • What part did the user most surprised?


This section describes why this event was significant and provides an outline of the event. The experts can determine the learning happens from the method of reflection. It is an analysis of the incident.

Key question:

  • What was the feeling of the person at the time of the incident?
  • What were their responses now, following the event, any distinct reaction encountered at the time?
  • What are the exceptions and, if so, why?
  • What was the result of the response (or stagnancy)?
  • What is difficult, if there is any complicated task?
  • What positive things developed from the event?
  • What was the person's expertise about others?
  • What is the principal intelligence for feeling separate from other bodies?


This section studies the recommended activities following the event and the experience of the event or occurrence. Actioning the latest knowledge raises specific questions and the following question that the person has.

Key question:

  • What are the consequences for the users?
  • What should proceed to adjust the situation?
  • What do the users intend to succeed in the case?
  • What might the users perform adversely if confronted with a similar event again?
  • What essential data do the users require to meet the same situation repeatedly?
  • How will the user's applications on the event?
  • How can people approach the difficulty from the outline?

Which Areas Practice The Driscoll Reflective Model?

The Driscoll model is implemented so that it can be utilized in numerous events. Some instances that use this model is the reflective learning is not restricted to teaching, business, earth sciences, and in circumstances where there is a requirement to operate with others (Loo and Thorpe, 2002). Customarily, the cases where it can be practiced are those where exercise and experience will enhance the practitioner's performance. The reflective method stimulates the knowledge process and improves personal judgment solely.

Driscoll's model can be utilized for each of these as it is a prevailing model, as it does not have components particular to any development or profession. But, it deserves jotted down that the model was produced with clinical training employment in mind. Hence, it is unsurprising that Driscoll's model is most usually practised in clinical/pharmaceutical events.

Benefits and Limitations of Driscoll Model

Recalling why one should practise The Driscoll Model of Reflection explains why it is beneficial for some and hostile for others:

The Benefits of using this reflection model

This model can be helpful for all those who require a quick result. If the person needs the simple results from the straightforward questionnaire, then the questions like "what? So what? Now what? Model" will assist their aim. This is because it is simple to recognize and efficient to understand. Queued problems are nowhere related to difficulties. Even experts state that novices can practice this model of reflection with comfort.

The Limitations of using this reflection model

The only critique or limitation of the Driscoll model of reflection is that it cannot give the experts a more profound reflection. Therefore, if they expect to complete a layered or extended thought, this may not serve them.

Where Can A Reflective Method Be Implemented?

John Driscoll agrees on using the reflection as a recurring event on the practice. The reflective practice can be implemented for the assessments of learners. Here is a listing of few formalized opportunities in clinical practices to reminisce about reflection, such as:

  • Transition meetings
  • Meetings/teachings/studies
  • Transition times
  • Network conferences or conventions
  • Learning from the articles or journals
  • Ministering journal club
  • Clinical case investigations
  • Case conferences
  • Letters of criticism
  • Critical or significant events in the area
  • Having a professional portfolio
  • Community meetings
  • Audits

Reflective Writing Using the Driscoll's Model-like An Expert

By now that the readers have surmised the advantages of reflective writing. They seemingly would have developed an interest in a reflective writing.

The students have to determine how to begin reflective writing. It operates individually for everyone. Few people seem to discuss their event out loud, and on the other hand, few people choose to keep it slightly hidden. There could be several approaches to compose reflective writing. The aim should be to become more regulated.

Final Verdict

These are always a few models that work for the best for the experts. One of them is reflective models. This model presents a helpful guide to commence, reflection is a particular method, and all of them use it distinctly. The readers have to ponder why they are using this John Driscoll Model of Reflection and its scope. The experts can also weigh the merits and demerits of the model and differentiate them like Gibbs's models. The users who are seeking the assignment help can gain more understanding of the Driscoll Model! Let others know what they think of it in the comments section.

Authors Bio:

Sophie has been serving with the academic platform Online Assignment Expert for more than a decade now. She has been associated as a preeminent academic writer and gives the university assignment help to students. For the learners who lookout for educational guidance, then Sophie is a top-rated expert in homework help.

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